USGS stands for United States Geological Survey. It is scientific agency by the government of United States. In United States Geological Survey there is team of scientist who studies and examines the landscape of United States. Scientist also studies the natural hazardous and the natural resources present in land of United States.
There are four major disciplines occurs in the organization of United States Geological Survey that are hydrology, biology, geology and geography. It means in USGS the main focus gives on this four disciplines.
In hydrology, attention is given to all water related problems and their solutions then in biology, there were all biological terms taken into account and their information. As well as in geology, focus is given to collecting information of geological conditions in United States that are rocks, metals, sand, land, etc. and last is geography, in this discipline scientist studies geographical condition of United States.
United States Geological Survey is the bureau by the US government of “United States Department of the interior”, which is the sole scientific agency of department.
History of United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is the agency which established 140 years ago. The formation date of United States Geological Survey is 3rd march 1879. Its jurisdiction is United States. The United States Geological Survey is started under the aim of classification of public lands as well as examination of geological structures. It also includes products of national domain and mineral resources.
In year 1803, this entire task was driven by inventory of large lands added to the United States by Louisiana Purchase. At the 30th day of June, 1879, the Louisiana Purchase provided that the Powell, wheeler, and Hayden surveys be discontinued.
The first director of the United States Geological Survey was Clarence King who assembled by regional survey agencies organization. After Clarence King the director of Clarence King becomes John Wesley Powell. And the current director of USGS is James F. Reilly.
Location of USGS
The headquarters of Clarence King is at John W. Powell national center which is in Ruston in Virginia, U.S. there were approximately 8670 employees worked in United States Geological Survey. It has some major offices also which are located at Lakewood, Colorado at the Denver federal center as well as at the Menlo Park in California.
Slogan of United States Geological Survey
The current motto of United States Geological Survey is “science for changing word” which is use from the August month of year 1997. The slogan of United States Geological Survey is “Earth Science in the Public Service” which is use from the hundredth anniversary of USGS.
Annual budget of United States Geological Survey
The annual budget of United States Geological Survey is about $1.16 billion according to survey of 2019. And the agency executive of the United States Geological Survey is Mr. James F. Reilly who is director of USGS.
Publications of United States Geological Survey
- Biological Science Report: this is record of interpretation and findings of scientific interest of investigation and research which is significant for BRD Biological Resources Discipline. Theoretical analysis or extensive data may be including in it. This report is starts in year 1995 and ends in the year 2003 by U.S. biological survey.
- Bulletin: there are results of topographical or geological studies, resource studies are including in bulletin. On the related topics short papers collection also present in it. The interpretation and significant data of lasting scientific interest but approximately lesser in scope than that of professional papers.
- Coal investigations: the character, resource potential and origin of coal deposits shown by cross sections, structure contour, geological maps, as well as measured coal sections where they are appropriate.
- General Interest Publication: the topics which are present in wide varieties are covered clearly and concisely in the variety of formats. It focuses on USGS programmes, projects, and general scientific information of the public interest and services. This series covers the topics like variety of media, including postcards, videos, pamphlets, bookmarks, teacher kits, and motion graphics. This all are includes in General Interest Publication.
- Geological Quadrangle Map: this publication shows geological maps in detail. And also depicting the areas which have geological problems. This may be surficial units or portray bedrock or may be both of them.
- Oil and Gas Investigation Map: for the area of petroleum resources this is to be applied. it includes structure counters, cross sections, correlation diagrams, columnar sections as well as information on wells drilled for the gas and oils. Single as well as multiple sheets also present in it.
- Water resource investigation report: This is the report which is based on all aspects of hydrology in which recoverability, use and quality of water resources are present. There were statistical reports based on stream flow, ground water levels, water quality and floods are also included.
- Land use land cover map: In this publication different categories of land use as well as cover are given. May be natural or artificial for the use to land use planners, geographers and others. The scale 1:250000 or may be 1:100000 is used by planimetric maps.
Regions covered by United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey has split with single aim in the seven regions that are as follows:
- Rocky mountain
- Mid continent
- Northwest-pacific islands
Programmes of United State geological survey
Since the year 2012, the United State geological survey focuses on six topics of “Mission Areas” are as follows:
- land use and climate change
- Core science systems,
- Natural hazards,
- Minerals, energy and environmental heath,
- Water, etc.
By above information we understand that United State Geological Survey is the government body of scientist who studies the topography, geology, biology and geography of land.
There are many surveys present in the USGS which collects the information which is useful to many sectors of industries of United States.